Dravidar Kazagam's first state conference

3. First DK State Conference, Dravida Nadu Demand and Anti-Hindi Agitation

Chapter 3
"Political History of the Rise and Fall of Dravidian Parties in Tamil Nadu (South India)"

Thanjai Nalankilli, Ph.D.

TAMIL TRIBUNE, September 2005 (ID. 2005-09-01)
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Table of Contents of the book "Political History of the Rise and Fall of Dravidian Parties in Tamil Nadu (South India)"and links to other chapters


CBSE - Central Board of Secondary Education

DK - Dravidar Kazhagam

DMK - Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam

1. Thiruchi Conference

The first state conference after the formation of Dravidar Kazhagam (DK) was held in Thiruchi. General-Secretary C. N. Annadurai gave a lengthy speech about Dravida Nadu independence. Here are excerpts from the speech (translated from Tamil by the author). (NOTE: All materials within square parentheses  [ ] are by the author/translator to clarify and put matters in proper perspective.)

"India is a continent; it should be divided into a number of countries. The continent of Europe has 32 independent countries. No one argues that it should be a single country ruled by a single government. Similarly there is no need for India to be under a single government". [Translator's Note: This speech was made in the 1940s. Some may argue today that Europe is uniting as a European Union. Note that European Union is not a country; it is a union of sovereign independent countries. Indian states are not sovereign independent countries that have the right to get out of the Union if they so choose. European countries have that sovereign right. That is a major and important difference. So Annadurai's statement is valid even today.]

"Aryan influence increases within a single country called India. Welfare of the other races is crushed under Aryan rule. Uniting different races under a single country leads to rebellions and troubles. In order to prevent such troubles and bloodshed in India, we should divide India according to racial lines now." [Translator's Note: In essence Annadurai had foretold the armed uprisings and bloodlettings in Punjab and the northeastern states.]

"Even during the days of the emperors Ashoka, Kanishkar, Samudra Gupta and Akbar, India was not a single country.

"If India is divided into many countries, each country could develop its economy according to its circumstances. It would also put an end to one region robbing the resources of another. All races can achieve equality only if each race has its own country and government. We fear the thought of one race living under the rule of another. This fear gives birth to violent rebellion. It is necessary to divide India racially to prevent such violent revolutions. The reason one race has not choked another race to death in India so far is the British guns. When the British leave, India will become a killing field [unless it is divided into different countries on racial basis]." [Translator's Note: Again Annadurai is foretelling the armed uprisings and bloodlettings in Punjab and the northeastern states.]

2. Protests against Hindi in Schools

The Congress ministry of Madras Province introduced Hindi as a compulsory subject in schools again in 1946. (Hindi was first introduced by the Congress ministry in 1938 and was withdrawn in 1940 after massive protests against it. Hindi was made a compulsory subject again in 1942 and withdrawn again after protests. Hindi was being introduced the third time in 1946.) Dravidar Kazhagam spearheaded the agitation against it. Party President Periyar E. V. Ramaswamy asked his top lieutenant C. N. Annadurai to head the agitation. After many protest marches, with support from the general public, the provincial government again withdrew Hindi. This "on-off" game continued for some more years. Then Hindi continued as an optional subject in schools for some years.

The final chapter was written to this hide-and-seek game in 1968 when the DMK state government under Chief Minister C. N. Annadurai, which came to power for the first time in 1967, removed Hindi from schools once and forever. The succeeding Chief Ministers M. Karunanidhi, M. G. Ramachandran and Jeyalalithaa Jeyaram (all from Dravidian parties) refused to allow Hindi in schools under state government jurisdiction in spite of suggestions from Indian Government ministers. Indian Government's response was to sanction hundreds of schools in Tamil Nadu under its direct jurisdiction (CBSE scheme) bypassing the state government. Hindi is taught in these schools but Tamil is optional.

[SUMMARY: Dravidar Kazhagam's first state conference and successful opposition to Hindi in schools.]

EDITORIAL NOTE: Some Tamil names are spelled differently by different people. Here are some variations of names used in this chapter:

Dravidar Kazhagam - Dravidar Kazagam
Karunanidhi - Karunanithi
Nalankilli - Nalangkilli
Periyar - Periar
Thiruchi - Trichi, Thiruchirapalli


1. Why DK and DMK initially asked for Independent Dravida Nadu and later moved towards Independent Tamil Nadu (by Thanjai Nalankilli), TAMIL TRIBUNE, May 2005 (14 KB)

FIS050813    2005-a1d

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